Aerva lanata serves as a purpose of anthelmintic and medication that soothes inflamed and injured skin. The people of biharuse use the plant as a treatment of . Herbs, white woolly. Leaves x 3 cm, orbicular to ovate, apex obtuse, mucronate, pubescent above, densely woolly below, membranous; petiole 1 cm. Spikes. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Aerva Lanata. List of various diseases cured by Aerva Lanata. How Aerva Lanata is effective for various.
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Correspondence should be addressed to Musbau Adewunmi Akanji ; moc. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The leaves of Aerva lanata are one of the indigenous medicinal plants used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in Africa. However, its effect on the activities of diabetes-related enzymes has not been investigated.
This aerca evaluated the in vitro inhibitory effects of different extracts of the A. Aqueous, ethanol, and hydroethanol extracts of A. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated using 1,1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl DPPH and 2,2-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazolinesulphonic acid ABTS. The results obtained showed that the hydroethanol extract of the A. The Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that the mode of inhibition of both enzymes by the hydroethanol extract was uncompetitive.
It can be concluded that the A. Diabetes is one of the global health emergencies of the 21 st century, which affects about million people worldwide, and this may rise up to million by the year [ 1 ]. Type 2 diabetes is the commonest form of this disease which is characterized by insulin resistance or reduced insulin sensitivity leading to hyperglycemia [ 2 ]. Management of type 2 diabetes normally entails lifestyle modification diet and exercise as well as treatment with oral hypoglycemic drugs, such as insulin secretagogues e.
Diabetes and some other diseases like cancer and stroke have been linked to oxidative stress which arises from the excessive production of free radicals in aevra mitochondrial electron transport chain [ 4 ]. Though the natural defence mechanism of animals detoxifies these free radicals with the aid of antioxidant molecules and enzymes, oxidative stress occurs when the effect of free radicals outweighs that of the cellular antioxidants [ 5 ].
Therefore, searching for antioxidant and antidiabetic agents from plants is an important strategy required to mitigate the widespread nature of diabetes. This is because present synthetic drugs have many drawbacks ranging from limited efficacy to several side effects such as hypoglycemia, weight gain, and chronic tissue damage.
Amaranthaceae serva an lansta or prostrate plant found in the tropical regions of Africa, India, Arabia, and the Philippines [ 6 ].
Different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of several diseases including inflammation, malaria, kidney stone, rheumatism, bronchitis, haemorrhage, diuresis, jaundice, and diabetes [ 7 ]. The plant is very rich in phenolic compounds and alkaloids as well as steroids. A plethora of studies have reported the pharmacological potentials of Aerva lanata ranging from hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antihelminthic, and antitumour activities to antidiabetic activities [ 9 ].
This study therefore presents inhibitory effects of the Aerva lanata extract on diabetes-related enzymes and free radical-scavenging properties of the plant. Louis, USA, while starch soluble extra pure was obtained from J.
Other chemicals and reagents were of analytical grade, and the water used was glass-distilled. It was identified and authenticated by Dr.
Kadiri of the Department of Botany, University of Lagos, Nigeria, and a voucher specimen with reference number LUH was deposited in the university herbarium. The hydroethanol extract was initially concentrated using a rotary evaporator and later freeze-dried in the lyophilizer. Extracts were dissolved in distilled water to prepare different concentrations 0.
The control was prepared using the same procedure by replacing the extract with distilled water, while the activity of the standard was tested by replacing the extract with acarbose. The amount of reducing sugars released was determined spectrophotometrically using a maltose standard curve and converted to reaction velocities.
Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult. | Species | India Biodiversity Portal
The control was prepared using the same procedure by replacing the extract with distilled water while the activity of the standard was tested by replacing the extract with acarbose. The percentage inhibition was calculated as follows: The amount of reducing sugars released was determined spectrophotometrically using a para -nitrophenol standard curve and converted to reaction velocities. IC 50 values were determined from the percentage inhibitory capacities of the extracts using Microsoft Excel software.
The DPPH free radical-scavenging ability of each extract was subsequently calculated with respect to the reference which contains all the reagents without the test sample [ 13 ]. The DPPH free radical-scavenging ability of the standard antioxidant was also tested by replacing the extract with quercetin.
The superoxide anion radical-scavenging ability of the standard antioxidant was also tested by replacing the extract with aedva. EC 50 values were determined from the free radical-scavenging or iron-chelating abilities of the extracts using Microsoft Excel software.
At lahata concentrations 0. However, at concentrations 1.
At the lowest 0. In between these concentrations, the hydroethanol extract displayed significantly higher inhibition of the enzyme compared to other extracts. The mode of inhibition of the enzymes by the hydroethanol extract of Aerva lanata is shown in Figure 2.
Though there are variations, there is no significant difference in the DPPH radical-scavenging abilities among all the extracts tested except for the concentration of 0. A similar trend is also reflected in the ABTS radical-scavenging abilities where the scavenging abilities of the extracts are similar except at the concentration of 1. Table 2 presents the EC 50 for the free radical-scavenging abilities of the various extracts of Aerva lanata.
Among all the extracts, the hydroethanol extract exhibited the lowest EC 50 for the DPPH radical-scavenging ability but was similar to the ethanol extract and significantly higher than the standard, gallic acid.
Conversely, the aqueous extract of Aerva lanata displayed the lowest EC 50 for the ABTS radical-scavenging abilities compared to the extracts and the standard. However, the EC 50 for free radical-scavenging abilities exhibited by both ethanol and hydroethanol extracts are similar. The phenolic and flavonoid composition of various extracts of Aerva lanata is shown in Table 3. The hydroethanol extract possessed the highest quantity of phenolics followed by the aqueous extract.
However, the ethanol extract is the richest in flavonoids compared to the other extracts. We investigated the antidiabetic and free radical-scavenging properties of different extracts of Aerva lanata using in vitro models.
Inhibition of these enzymes would slow down the degradation of starch in the gastrointestinal tract, thereby ameliorating hyperglycemia. This is undesirable of a good hypoglycemic agent as excessive inhibition of the enzyme is responsible for drawbacks associated with acarbose such as abdominal distention and hypoglycemia [ 16 ]. In order to determine the modes of inhibition of the enzymes by Aerva lanatathe most potent extract hydroethanol of the plant was chosen for the study. This implies that the active component in the extract only recognizes and binds to the enzyme-substrate ES complex, without binding to the free enzyme [ 17 ].
This type of inhibition is characterized by a reduction in both substrates K m and V maxand the inhibitor binds to the enzyme target only when the target is active and the substrate is present [ 18 ]. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases including diabetes mellitus. Previous studies also showed that hyperglycemia induces the generation of free radicals, which aggravates the development of diabetes and its associated complications [ 1920 ].
This is why the antioxidant potential of the Aerva lanata extracts was assessed to ascertain the relationship between antidiabetic and antioxidant potentials of the plant. On the contrary, the aqueous extract of the plant exhibited the lowest IC 50 for scavenging of superoxide radical ABTS. The superoxide radical is implicated in several diseases because it plays an important role in the formation of other reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen, which causes oxidative damage to biomolecules [ 2122 ].
In consonance with the outcome of the in vitro hypoglycemic and antioxidant abilities of Aerva lanata extracts, compositional analysis revealed that the hydroethanol extract is the richest in terms of phenolics. Phenolic compounds are one of the most numerous and widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants [ 23 ]. They possess a wide range of pharmacological activities including antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic activities [ 24 ].
All these functions have been attributed to their chemical composition and antioxidant properties. It can therefore be suggested that the antidiabetic activities of the Aerva lanata extracts may be due to the phenolic composition of the plant and its antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the aqueous, ethanol, and hydroethanol extracts of the Aerva lanata leaf inhibited the activities of diabetes-related enzymes and possessed free radical-scavenging abilities.
Out of the three extracts, the hydroethanol extract displayed the most effective antidiabetic as well as antioxidant potential. This may be due to its high phenolic content. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
Aerva lanata – Wikipedia
The authors acknowledge the support of the University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria, and Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria, in the conduct of the experiments and preparation of the manuscript. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. Indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Table of Contents Alerts. Abstract The leaves of Aerva lanata are one of the indigenous medicinal plants used in the management of diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in Africa.
Introduction Diabetes is one of the global health emergencies of the 21 st century, which affects about million people worldwide, and this may rise up to million by the year [ 1 ]. Materials and Methods 2. Bars carrying different letters at the same concentration are significantly different.
EC 50 values for the free radical-scavenging activities of different extracts of Aerva lanata leaves. Total phenolic and flavonoid composition of Aerva lanata leaves. View at Google Scholar Y.
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View at Google Scholar M. View at Google Scholar N. View at Google Scholar F.