Edited by. John ffitch. Jean Piché. Peter Nix. Richard Boulanger. Rasmus Ekman. David Boothe. Kevin Conder. Steven Yi. Michael Gogins. Andrés Cabrera. The Canonical Csound Reference Manual. Next. The Canonical Csound Reference Manual. Frames Version. Version Barry Vercoe. MIT Media Lab. et. al. Public Csound. Reference Manual. CANONICAL VERSION by Barry Vercoe , Media Lab MIT. & contributors. Edited by John ffitch, Richard Boulanger.

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GEN03 — Generates a stored function table by evaluating a polynomial. See more informatin on the STK opcodes, below. The ability to have greater control over the vibrato for expressivity has resulted in a more intricate opcode, such as vibrato by Gabriel Maldanado. GEN16 – Creates a table from a starting value to an ending value.

BASICS provides a general introduction to key concepts about digital sound, vital to understanding how Csound deals with audio. Reference Orchestra Opcodes and Operators! Writes audio output to a disk file. The call is perfomed in the global environment, and the result the returning value is copied into the Csound output variables specified.

GENsone — Generate a table with values of the sone function. GEN14 — Stores a polynomial whose coefficients derive from Chebyshevs of the second kind. JackoInfo — Prints information about the Jack system. GEN24 — Reads numeric values from another allocated function-table and rescales them. Modal Frequency Ratios E. The more familiar you become with typing out Csound code, the more proficient you will become at implementing your own ideas from low level principles; your focus will shift from the code itself to the musical idea behind the code.

Csound Features and Opcodes In one sense, the ability of computers, through audio applications, to recreate the broad range capable of human musical expression is an aspired goal.


GEN08 — Generate a piecewise cubic spline curve.

/chapter: How-To-Use-This-Manual / CSOUND

With time and patience it is possible to develop musical gestures over which one has extensive control using Csound. All files – examples and audio files – can be downloaded at www. MixerGetLevel — Gets the level of a send to a buss. FLslidBnk2Set – modify the values of a slider bank. MixerClear — Resets all channels of a buss to 0. On the code level, Csound has opcodes which allow for dynamic changes in tempo and rhythm as output values which can be utilized as control input values for sound producing opcodes.


The level of detail with which the user is able to manipulate sound in Csound is a tribute to the application’s longevity and the willingness of opcode developers to continue to provide tools that are flexible under a wide range of conditions for producing computer music. GENexp canonicall Generate a table with values on the exp function. Opcodes are often employed in various combinations to produce an output.

GEN33 — Generate composite waveforms by mixing simple sinusoids. It is not necessary to read each chapter in sequence, feel free to jump to any chapter that interests you, although bear in mind that occasionally a chapter may make reference to a previous one.

GEN09 — Generate composite waveforms made up of weighted sums of simple sinusoids. GEN51 – This subroutine fills a table with a refereence customized micro-tuning scale, in the manner of Csound opcodes cpstun, cpstuni and canonicl. GEN42 — Generates a random distribution of canoniczl ranges of values.

This is without the sense of touch, pressure, vibration, sound location, and level of intensity that the live performer feels and reacts to immediately. If expression in the music we are refegence is our goal, then we want our code to represent, on some level, the same expressive quality that a live performer is able to instill in the music. GEN21 — Generates tables of different random distributions. Canonial — Creates two tables of stored polynomial functions. GEN10 – Generate composite waveforms made up of weighted sums of simple sinusoids.


GEN05 — Constructs functions from segments of exponential curves. FLslidBnk2Setk — modify the values of a slider bank. GEN12 – Generates the log of a modified Bessel function of the second kind. GEN21 — Generates maunal of different random distributions.

STKShakers — STKShakers is an instrument that simulates environmental sounds or collisions of multiple independent sound producing objects. GEN18 – Writes composite waveforms made up of pre-existing waveforms. Writes audio output to a disk file. GEN25 — Construct functions from segments of exponential curves in breakpoint fashion. GEN06 — Generates a function comprised of segments of cubic polynomials.

FLxyin – Senses the canonicaal cursor position in a user-defined area inside an FLpanel. This opcode will send note events from a source machine to many destinations. ATSbufread – reads data from and ATS data file and stores it in an internal data table of frequency, amplitude pairs.

The Canonical Csound Reference Manual

FLslidBnkSet — modify the values of a slider bank. MixerSend — Mixes an arate signal into a channel of a buss. In no way is it meant as a replacement for the Canonical Csound Reference Manual.

GEN23 — Reads numeric values from a text file. FLloadsnap — Loads all snapshots into the memory bank of the current orchestra. FLslidBnkGetHandle – gets the handle of last slider bank created.

GEN14 – Stores a polynomial whose coefficients derive from Chebyshevs of the second kind.