EASY ARABIC GRAMMAR JANE WIGHTWICK MAHMOUD GAAFAR PDF

Easy Arabic Grammar has 70 ratings and 4 reviews. Mahmoud Gaafar Read and Speak Arabic for Beginners by Jane Wightwick Alif Baa by Kristen Brustad. . works of Imams, Scholars & Students of “al-Salaf al- Sāliḥ” (السلف الصالح). BOOKS: >, AUDIO LECTURES: >11,, VIDEOS: > . Easy Arabic Grammar: Jane Wightwick, Mahmoud Gaafar: Books –

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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act ofno part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: In particular, the input of Ghinwa Mamari of the School of Oriental and African Studies London University was invaluable in making the structure of the units more coherent and the trickier grammar points more precise.

Introduction vii Introduction What is Arabic ‘grammar 7? Arabic ‘grammar’ will mean different things to different people. To learners of Arabic as a foreign language it might mean the fundamentals of the language: To more advanced Arabists and scholars it might mean the higher-level subtleties of Modern Standard or Classical Arabic. To native speakers, it usually conjures up a subject studied at school, often hazily remembered lessons analysing sentences with a view to being able to spell and pronounce formal Arabic correctly.

What this book means by ‘grammar’ is a progressive knowledge of the structure of Arabic from the basic building blocks to some, but by no means all, of the more subtle nuances of Modern Standard Arabic. Levels of formality Learners of Arabic generally appreciate the difference between the various spoken Arabic dialects and the universal Modern Standard Arabic. What is not so well understood is that Modern Standard itself can be spoken and written at different levels of sophistication.

Although most Arabs can communicate in a form of standard Arabic and are aware that formal Arabic is pronounced with additional case endings, only scholars, media presenters and public speakers use these endings routinely. This book includes Case Notes sections with additional explanations and activities covering the grammatical case endings used in formal, literary and religious Arabic. These grammatical cases are similar to those found in languages such as German or Russian, but in Arabic are not usually pronounced in less formal contexts.

You can use the book without reference to the Case Notes if you wish initially to acquire a more general understanding. Alternatively, you can study the Case Notes sections if you have an interest in this aspect of Arabic grammar and want to learn about it from the beginning.

How to use this book This gaafqr a reference and activity book wightwici all beginners and early intermediate students of Arabic, whether studying in a group or by themselves. The book can also be used independently to improve understanding of the basics of grammar or to gain an overview of the structure of the Arabic language.

The book has a built-in progression. Explanations and activities draw only on structures already covered in previous units. Work your way through the units and measure your progress step by step. Alternatively, if you are already studying Arabic you can use the relevant part of the book for extra practice on a particular point of grammar.

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The main part of the book is divided into 20 units, each concentrating on an aspect of Arabic grammar. Answers to all the activities are also included in the final section of the book.

Introduction viii Arabic script It is beneficial to acquire familiarity with the Arabic script and the short vowel marks before studying this book. However, the complete alphabet is provided here for reference. These symbols are not generally included in modern written Arabic.

Easy Arabic Grammar – Jane Wightwick – Mahmoud Gaafar

This book uses them where necessary for clarity. Fundamentals of Arabic grammar The Arabic root system 3 The Arabic root system Arabic is a language based on a system of ‘roots’. In Gaaafar, we often refer to the ‘root’ of a word to mean its origin, for example the root of the English word ‘engineer’ is the Latin ingenium f meaning ‘skill’.

The Arabic root, arablc masdar, refers to the core meaning of a word.

Easy Arabic Grammar : Jane Wightwick :

This core can usually be identified by three root consonants non- vowels. Notice how the root letters always appear in the same order. Any additional consonants or vowels before, after or between the root letters modify the meaning according to different general patterns. The emphasis on root consonants means that vowels, especially short vowels, are of secondary importance. The pronunciation often varies between Modern Standard Arabic and spoken dialects.

For example, Che writes’ would be pronounced yaktub in Modern Standard, but could be yuktub or yiktib in dialect. The wightwkck is generally conveyed by the consonants rather than the vowels. Much of Arabic grammar is concerned with how the root is manipulated to create different related meanings.

As you become more familiar with the patterns and structures, you will be more able to identify the roots and to manipulate them yourself. Activity 1 Can you identify the three root letters in each of the following sets of words? What do you think the general core meaning could be? Feminine words usually fall into one of two categories: Most of these are names of countries, natural features or gaafa of the body that come in pairs, for example: Case Notes Arabic has different levels of formality and complexity.

In certain contexts, particularly Quranic or Classical Arabic but also sometimes in more formal Standard Arabic, you will see and hear additional grammatical endings.

These endings represent the case of the noun nominativeaccusative or genitive and whether it is definite or indefinite. The endings change depending on the function of the noun in a sentence. Optional Activity Put the tanwTn on jame nouns and say them out loud. To make a noun definite ‘ the book 7The office 7etc. Jl al- is written joined to the word it refers to and is the same for both masculine and feminine: The T is assimilated and instead the initial letter of the noun is pronounced twice – and written with a shadda if the vowel marks are included: Note that only the pronunciation is gram,ar by sun letters.

The spelling of Jl al- doesn’t change. Half the 28 letters of the alphabet are sun letters. Again, this affects only the pronunciation and not the spelling: Pronouns singular and non-verbal sentences Pronouns are words such as ‘I’, ‘it’ or ‘you’ which replace names or nouns in a sentence. Arabic has more pronouns than English since it has different versions for masculine and feminine, singular and plural, and even special dual pronouns for two people or things.

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Easy Arabic Grammar

Singular pronouns Here are the singular pronouns. The subject, either a noun or a pronoun, can be followed directly by the rest of the eaey My aunt Nadia [is a] nurse. The dog [is] in the garden. You will learn more about this in Unit 8. For the moment, it is enough to know that the case ending will be nominative unless there is a reason for it not to be. Plurals and plural pronouns 19 Plurals and plural pronouns Many aspects of elementary Arabic grammar are straightforward, but plurals require explanation and practice.

The first point to make is that Arabic plurals refer only to three or more people or items.

For two people or items, there is a separate dual form, although this is not always used in less formal Arabic. The dual form is covered separately in Unit Plural pronouns In addition to the singular pronouns, there are also five plural pronouns: If a group of people is mixed male and female, the masculine form is used.

The group must be entirely female for the feminine plural to be used. Spoken dialects sometimes ignore even this difference and use the masculine form throughout. The simpler sound plural will be covered in this unit and the broken plural in Unit Sound plurals There are two sound plurals, formed by adding external suffixes: The sound masculine plural SMP is used almost exclusively with words describing groups of males or mixed males and females, for example when referring to jobs and nationalities: Some use a broken plural see Unit Activity 1 Complete these sentences using the plural of the words in the box, as in the example.

All of the words can be made plural using the sound masculine -un ending. If the singular word ends with the feminine -a Sthis should be removed before the SFP is added: It is a common plural and is used with both feminine and masculine nouns, although not generally with nouns referring to male people.

There are two main groups of nouns with which the SFP is used. You need to learn each word individually with its mahmouud. In informal contexts you may also hear and see foreign loan words with the SFP ol -at ending: With mahmohd plurals, Arabic uses the feminine singular pronoun, e.

They’re in the fridge. The feminine singular is used with all non-human plurals whether the nouns are originally masculine or feminine in the singular. Case Notes Plural nouns also have case endings.

Optional Activity Make these words plural and pronounce them with the indefinite case ending: There are no precise rules governing which plural is used for a particular noun. The SFP is used with groups of females and to make certain other masculine and feminine nouns plural.

They are in the street. Demonstratives Demonstratives are the equivalents of the Wigthwick ‘this’ or ‘that’, as in ‘this house’, ‘that boy’.

Arabic demonstratives change according to whether they are describing a feminine or a masculine word: Jl mahmous elides as the demonstratives all end in a vowel see Unit 3. This [is a] boy. That [is a] city. You need to be careful. This means that only the presence of Jl al indicates the difference between: