Gendercide and genocide Beyond ‘Gendercide’: Incorporating Gender into Comparative Genocide Studies · C. Carpenter. The International. In the first chapter of his edited volume Gendercide and Genocide, Adam Jones asserts that “gendercide,” in a global-historical perspective, “is a frequently and. Gendercide is the systematic killing of members of a specific gender. The term is related to the Gendercide shares similarities with the term ‘genocide’ in inflicting mass murders; however, gendercide targets solely one gender, being men or.

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Journal of Genocide Research2: Please contact the publisher for permission to reproduce or distribute this article. Hyperlinks in the text are to Gendercide Watch case studies or, occasionally, outside sources.

From the opening hours of the war in Kosovoan overriding tactic was evident in Serb military strategy: Young men were the group that was by far the most targeted in the conflict in Kosovo If apprehended by Serbian forces — VJ [Yugoslav army], police or paramilitary — the young men were at risk, more than any other group of Kosovo society, of grave human rights violations. Many were executed on the spot, on occasion after horrendous torture.

Sometimes they would be arrested and taken to prisons or other detention centres, where, as described afterwards by men released from such detention, they would be tortured and ill-treated, while others would simply not be seen again. Others were taken for use as human shields or as forced labour.

Many young men “disappeared” following abduction. Similarly, although much remains unclear at the time of writing, a large body of refugee testimony and growing forensic evidence from East Timor suggests a systematic targeting of younger males for dismemberment by machete, mass execution, and torture to death.

The present article seeks to place such acts of “gendercide” in comparative and global-historical perspective. It argues that gendercide — inclusively defined as gender-selective mass killing — is a frequent and often defining feature of human conflict, and perhaps of human social organization, extending [] back to antiquity.

I contend as well that gendercide is a regular, even ubiquitous feature of contemporary politico-military conflicts worldwide. A theme of the article is that gendercide, at least when it targets males, has attracted virtually no attention at the level of scholarship or public policy.

As such, it can be classed as one of the great “taboo” subjects of the contemporary age. I hold, nonetheless, that an inclusive understanding of gendercide carries powerful implications for the emerging field of comparative genocide studies. For present gendeecide necessarily all purposes, “gender” can be defined primarily, if not exclusively, in terms of biological sex.

The term gendwrcide was first coined by Mary Anne Warren in her thought-provoking book, Gendercide: The Implications of Sex Selection.

The Oxford American Dictionary defines genocide as “the deliberate extermination of genovide race of people. Other terms, such as “gynocide” and “femicide,” have been used xnd refer to the wrongful killing of girls and women. But “gendercide” is a sex-neutral term, in that the victims may be either male or female.

There is a need for such a sex-neutral term, since sexually discriminatory killing is just as wrong when the victims happen to be male.

The term also calls attention to the fact that gender roles have often had lethal consequences, and that these are in important respects analogous to the lethal consequences of racial, gemocide, and class prejudice. Warren gives the analyst a great deal to work with here. There is the gender-inclusive framing of “sexually discriminatory killing”; the normative injunction that all such killing is equally “wrong”; and the sophisticated linking of the gender variable to “racial, religious, and class prejudice.

The chapter concerns itself exclusively with female-selective killing: Whatever the merits of extending the framework gendercixe far or to the genital mutilation of women or mengendercide, for all practical purposes, is limited in Warren’s analysis to “anti-female gendercide. In fact, however, non-combatant men have been and continue to be the most frequent targets of mass killing and genocidal slaughter, as well as a host of lesser atrocities and abuses. The mass killing of males, particularly of “battle-age” men, 9 has roots deep in the history of conflict between human communities.

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SAGE Reference – Gender, Genocide and Gendercide

Gerda Lerner writes of the Middle East in classical times that “There is overwhelming historical evidence for the preponderance of the gehocide of killing or mutilating male prisoners and for the large-scale enslavement and rape of female prisoners.

Such gender-selective strategies were by no means fully consistent or universal, even to the limited extent that historians have been able to test the classical accounts.

Leo Kuper agrees that “it was common enough practice to destroy besieged cities and to gfndercide their inhabitants, or their male defenders while taking the women and children into slavery.

It is nonetheless remarkable how regularly one comes across references, in the literature on modern mass killing, to staggering demographic disproportions of adult males versus adult females — that is, a wildly skewed underrepresentation of adult men. One of the best-documented cases, though its strict designation as a “gendercide” is disputable, is the Stalinist purges of the s and s.

Thereafter, the disparity became gendrcide, reflecting the generations of males caught up in the purges and the Great Patriotic War. Fromwomen outnumbered men by 61 to 39 percent; [] fromthe figure was 62 to 38 percent; in the age group, 67 to 33 percent; from65 to 35 percent; and 70 or older, 68 to 32 percent. Conquest summarized the findings as follows:.


Many women died as a result of the war and the purges. But in both cases the great bulk of the victims was certainly male. From neither cause should there be much distinction in the figures for the sexes for the under age groups in For the block the[re] In the group, which could have been expected to take the major war losses, we find figures of to women.

One would have thought that these men, in their early twenties in the war, would have had the highest losses. But the proportion then gets worse stilland for theand [cohorts] remains a set to Even more striking, the worst proportion of all comes for the age group to The figures for the group to and for the 70 and over group to are also much worse than the soldiers’ groups.

Now all authorities agree that the Purge struck in the main at people “between thirty and fifty-five”; “generally, arrested people are all thirty or over. That’s the dangerous age: Precise deductions are not possible. Older men died as soldiers in the war. But on the other hand, the mass dispatch to labour camps of prisoners of war returned from Nazi hands in must have led to an extra, and non-military, death rate among the younger males.

So must the guerrilla fighting in the Baltic States and the Western Ukraine, which lasted for years after the war; and so must the deportations from the Caucasus and the general renewal of Purge activities in the post-war period.

But in any case, the general effect of the figures is clear enough. The wastage of millions of males in the older age groups is too great to be masked, whatever saving assumptions we may make.

We here have, frozen into the census figures, a striking indication of the magnitude of the losses inflicted in the Purge. But Stalin has not lacked for competitors among the architects of twentieth-century genocide and mass killing:.

No territory-wide census was taken in the Congo until long after the rubber terror [of ] was over. But Daniel Vangroenweghe, a Belgian anthropologist who worked in a former rubber area in the s, found persuasive demographic evidence that large numbers of men had been worked to death as rubber slaves or killed in punitive raids — and he discovered the evidence in the [Belgian] regime’s own statistics.

No other explanation accounts for the curious pattern that threads through the village-by-village headcounts taken in the colony long before the first territorial census. These local headcounts consistently show far more women than men. At Inongo infor example, there were children, adult women, but only adult men.


At nearby Iboko in there were children, adult women, but only adult men. Statistics from numerous other villages show the same pattern.

Sifting such figures today is like sifting the ruins of an Auschwitz crematorium. They do not tell you precise death tolls, but they reek of mass murder.

Some people even said that in Banjardowo it was very hard to find a single adult male. Where could they have gone to? Thousands were arrested, tortured, and killed.

Eventually cities and towns became bereft of young males who either took refuge in India or joined the liberation war.

Gendercide – Wikipedia

The major long-term demographic result [of Pol Pot’s genocide] is the preponderance of women in modern Cambodia. Women, genfercide large numbers of widows, make up 60 to 80 percent of the adult population in various parts of the country, as well as among Cambodians abroad. Rwanda has become a country of women.

It is currently estimated that 70 percent of the population is female and that 50 percent of all households are headed by women.

That the gender-selective mass killing and “disappearance” of males, especially “battle-age” males, remains a pervasive feature of contemporary conflict is not open to dispute. Indeed, its frequency across cultures and conflict types marks it as a possibly definitional element of contemporary warfare, state terrorism, mob violence, and paramilitary brigandage:. By the time they got to Meja they had collected as many as men. The gemocide army took up positions around the town while the militia and paramilitaries went through the houses grabbing the last few villagers and shoving them out into the road.

The men were surrounded by fields most of them had worked in their whole lives, and they could look up and see mountains they’d admired since they were children. Around noon the first group was led to the compost heap, gunned down, and burned under piles of cornhusks.

A few minutes later a group of about 70 were forced to lie down in three neat rows and were machine-gunned in the back. The rest — about 35 men — were taken to a farmhouse along the Gjakove road, pushed into genddrcide of the rooms, and then shot through the windows at point-blank range. The militiamen who did this then stepped inside, finished them off with shots to gedercide head, and burned the house down.

They walked away singing. Jammu and Kashmir The victims have included men of all ages, including juveniles and the very old, and all professions, including businessmen, lawyers, labourers and many teachers.

Many of them appear to be ordinary citizens picked up at random, without any connection to the armed struggle Their relatives still live in unbearable uncertainty about the fate of their loved ones. Police said the chainsaws geocide used to gendecide and behead several of the victims. Others were shot genercide death. Ten of the victims were men, police reported. The slain woman, a minor, was killed by militiamen seeking her husband, who was not at home. I know a lot about the massacres committed by the Rwandan Patriotic Gendedcide [in the course of invading Rwanda and ending the genocide].

The RPF [] wanted to establish its supremacy, and to do so they had to eliminate any potential rival. In many cases the Army came for men, ages 18 to 55, and took them away by night, never to be seen again. Their families search for them in vain, egndercide the prisons of Rwanda, but they all died at the hands of the Rwandan Patriotic Army.

The general pattern was to select youth and men who were still active, as well as leaders, teachers, farming instructors — anyone who played a role, any community leader was particularly singled out. Some men got tendercide.