The water vascular system is a hydraulic system used by echinoderms, such as sea stars and sea urchins, for locomotion, food and waste transportation, and respiration. The system is composed of canals connecting numerous tube feet. Echinoderms move by alternately contracting muscles that force water into it is restricted to water channels in sponges and the hydrostatic. Phylum Echinodermata Ex. Sea stars, sea cucumbers, feather stars, sea urchins, . water circulates through = hydrostatic skeleton unique to Echinoderms; Tube feet: create suction to adhere to substrate Movement. Echinoderms usually inhabit shallow coastal waters and ocean trenches. ➢ organisms in this . hydrostatic pressure permits movement. ➢ Path of water in the.

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Star fishes Asterias are the members of phylum Echinodermata which possess a characteristic hydrostatic skeleton. When a sea ij is turned over, it can right itself by folding. Mating and predators The forest floor: It is enclosed by the wall of another wide canal, the axial sinus. In Cedaris, the wall of the stone canal is provided with calcareous deposit. It then rolls over onto its oral surface. In Ophiactis virens, the stone canals are many.

Water Vascular System of Echinoderms

The musculature of the tube foot, in contrast to that of the ampulla, consists of longitudinal muscles, which are bounded on the inner side of the echiinoderms Fig. The ring canal normally has one to four polian vesicles, but in the order Apodidathere may be as many as fifty.

Nurturing the young Snakes: The functioning of the unit depends upon differences between the musculature of the ampulla and the tube foot Fig. In Clypeasteroids, the tube-feet are broad and the walls are devoid of calcareous bodies. These apparently produce coelomocytesamoeboid cells somewhat similar to the blood cells of vertebrates. Fertilization and dispersal, the first issues Mosses: The role of axial organ is not fully known.

BCB705 Biodiversity: Chapter2 – Evolution of Biodiversity

It is communicated with the exterior through the stone canal and axial sinus. Organized social systems Prairie dogs: This whole process allows for movement, and is quite powerful but extremely slow.


The madreporite is provided with many secondary water-pores. It is quite distinct from the perivisceral cavity in adult excepting some Holothurians and Crinoids. Sight is key Monkeys: A resemblance Major differences The rat kangaroo Kangaroo: Providing information Homo erectus: Instead, a simple valve at the upper end of the foot helps to control water pressure in the tube feet, along with contraction of the associated canals.

As in other echinoderms, the radial canals give rise to lateral canals, but there are no ampullae, and clusters of three tube feet branch from the ends of each canal, except around the mouth, where they are found singly. It is primarily locomotory in function and also sub-serves the function of tactile and respiratory organs in some cases.

Copulation Incubating the eggs Protecting the eggs Precocial and altricial chicks The relationship between the anatomy and flying Flight: But in Asterias rubens, there are two stone canals. Aiding digestion Compensation by plants Ruminants Animals prepare for food shortage The hibernating dormouse Flying squirrels Monkeys: The stone canals in all Holothurians are attached to body wall.

Wiley-Liss, New York, [2]. The ring canal is a constant structure in all Echinoderms and is situated round the mouth. Unlike sea stars, the tube feet are paired instead of staggered, and there are no ampullae.

In Crinoidea, madreporite is represented by fine water-pores on the body surface and these water-pores lead directly into the body cavity. The axial sinus is variously developed in different Echinoderms. The variations are due to their adaptations to different modes of living.

In the absence of ampullae, water pressure is maintained by the ring canal, which is surrounded by contractile muscle fibres. This page was last edited on 27 Julyat The radial canals run through notches in the calcareous plates surrounding the mouth and then run along the ambulacral areas along the length of the body.

This also is true in many Elasipodidae.


In Echinoidea, the stone canal is only one and has soft membranous wall devoid of calcareous matter. As in sea stars, the ampullae are arranged alternately, but in most though not all movwment they split into two as they pass through the test before merging again on the outer side.

Echinoderms: A hydrostatic structure

Macrophagy in Star Fish With Diagram. Among the Crinoidea, in Antedon, each lateral branch from the radial vessel supplies three tube-feet. In sea starswater enters the system through a sieve-like structure on the upper surface of the animal, called the madreporite. In sea stars these are always staggered, so that an ampulla on the left follows one on the right, and so on down the length of the radial canal. The stone canal runs to a circular ring canal, from which radial canals run outwards along the hydostatic grooves.

In Crinoidea, terminal suckers are absent and the tube-feet are sensory and respiratory in function. Characteristics of Protostomes and Deuterostomes. In most cases, the small lateral canals connecting the ampullae to the radial canal hydrosratic of equal length, so that the tube feet are arranged in two rows, one along each side of the groove.

The tube-feet have ampullae.

Water vascular system

In Pelagothuria it opens to the exterior by one pore and in many Elasipodidae there are 2 to 50 or more pores. In Ophiuroidea, the stone canal is devoid of calcareous deposition and opens in one of the oral plates Sedjwick, The junction between the lateral vessels and the tube-feet is provided with valves which assist in locomotion. A hydrostatic structure Echinoderms diversity: Echinoderms move by alternately contracting muscles that force water into the tube feet, causing them to extend and push against the ground, then relaxing to allow the feet to retract.

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